An outline of the Government system of Taiwan.
Taiwan is now a multi-party representative democracy. The Constitution of the Republic of China (the “Constitution”) is the fundamental law of the Republic of China (commonly referred to as “Taiwan”). It established Taiwan as a centralized republic with five branches of government. The Consitution was originally intended to govern the whole of China. It is now accepted as the basic law of all Taiwan. There have several challenges to the legitimacy of the Constitution, given that Taiwan was not formally incorporated into the Republic of China’s territory at the time of its passing. Some supporters of Taiwan independence contend that Taiwanese constituents in Taiwan should draft a new document to replace the Constitution, which was written by the Nationalist Party prior to the Nationalists fleeing Mainland China
(see the English translation of the Constitution).
The Five Branches of Government
Taiwan government is organized with five branches; the Executive Yuan, the Legislative Yuan, the Judicial Yuan, the Examination Yuan, and the Control Yuan.
The Executive Yuan: The Executive Yuan consists of two constitutionally distinct entities; (1) the President and Vice-President of Taiwan, and, (2) the Premier of the Executive Yuan.
(1) The President and Vice-President are jointly elected by popular vote every 4 years. They may hold office for no more than two 4-year terms. The President is Taiwan’s head of state, commander-in-chief of the armed forces, and the representative of Taiwan in foreign relations and at state functions. The President has the power to conclude international treaties and agreements, appoint and remove civic and military officials, promulgate laws, dissolve the Legislature under certain special circumstances, and issue emergency decrees in the event of national security threats or crises.
(2) The President appoints the Premier of the Executive Yuan, the Vice Premier of the Executive Yuan, and ministers. The Premier of the Executive Yuan has a supervisory role, and is also involved in explaining administrative policies and reporting to the Legislature. Currently, there are 8 ministries: (MOEA 經濟部, MOE 教育部, MOF 財政部, MOFA 外交部, MOJ 法務部, MND 國防部, MOI 內政部, and MOTC 交通部), and 29 other cabinet-level organizations. In 2012, there will be an additional 6 ministries (the Ministry of Agriculture 農業部, Ministry of Culture 文化部, Ministry of Environmental Resources 環境資源部, Ministry of Health and Welfare 衛生福利部, Ministry of Labor 勞動部, and Ministry of Science and Technology 科技部), 8 councils, 3 independent agencies, and 4 additional organizations.
The Legislative Yuan: The Legislative Yuan is Taiwan’s sole law-making body. It is equivalent to the “parliament” of many Western democracies. The Legislative Yuan is unicameral, and consists of 113 legislators. Legislators come to office in one of three ways: 73 members are elected under the first-past-the-post system in single-member constituencies; 34 are elected under the supplementary ballot system on a second ballot based on nationwide votes; and, six seats are elected by aboriginal voters through a single non-transferable vote in two three-member constituencies (SEE: http://engweb.cec.gov.tw/files/11-1030-4430.php). Members of the Legislative Yuan serve 4-year terms, and are able to serve an indefinite number of terms. The President of the Legislative Yuan is elected from the ranks of the legislators, and is responsible for coordinating the operation of the Legislature. The Legislative Yuan is responsible include passing laws, reviewing budgets, initiating proposals to amend the Constitution, impeach the President (subject to a 2/3 majority), and auditing reports submitted by the Executive Yuan.
The Judicial Yuan: The first ‘arm’ Judicial Yuan consists of a president, a vice-president, and a 15-member Council of Grand Justices, elected by the President, subject to approval of the Legislature. They serve staggered 8-year terms, and may not serve two terms consecutively. This ‘arm’ of the Judicial Yuan is responsible for interpreting the constitution and resolving jurisdictional disputes, as well as cases concerning the dissolution of political parties violating the Constitution. The second ‘arm’ of the Judicial Yuan consists of the hierarchy of national judges who hear all civil, criminal, administrative cases, as well as cases involving the disciplining of public officials. There are three levels in the judicial hierarchy hearing civil and criminal matters: district courts, high courts, and the Supreme Court. High administrative courts and the Supreme Administrative Court hear administrative matters; that is, cases of parties who seek remedy to violation of laws committed by government. Judges are hired for life through civil service examinations.
The Examination Yuan: In Taiwan, as per the Constitution, all civil servants must pass examinations. The Examination Yuan administers civil service examinations and civil service employment and salary matters. Members of the Examination Yuan are appointed by the President for renewable 6-year terms, subject to approval of the Legislature.
The Control Yuan: The Control Yuan is mandated to investigate complaints against public officials. Essentially, its role is to monitor public officials (including governmental expenditures) and recommend corrective measures or criminal procedures where appropriate. The Control Yuan also has the power to demand progress reports and issue censures or impeachments (except against the President and Vice-President of Taiwan). Members of the Control Yuan are appointed by the President for renewable 6-year terms, subject to approval of the Legislature.
(Sources: http://www.constitution.org/pd/gunning/taiwan/branches.htm; http://ilhaformosaaltomtaiwan.wordpress.com/government-of-taiwan-101/; http://www.countriesquest.com/asia/taiwan/government/the_five_yuan.htm)
Organization chart of Taiwan departments and ministries
If you want to go to the website of each department and/or ministries, please refer the official database; Government Agencies.
(Reference: Taiwan Government Entry Point)
But there is an reorganization implement for Taiwan government system now.